Create a Micronaut Database Application to Collect Metrics and Monitor Them on Oracle Cloud Infrastructure

This guide describes how to use the Graal Development Kit for Micronaut (GDK) to create a Micronaut® database application that collects standard and custom metrics, then publishes and monitors them on Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Monitoring.

Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Monitoring enables you to actively and passively monitor your application and cloud resources using the Metrics and Alarms features.

The application stores book information in a database and provides endpoints to query books. The application collects metrics for the whole application and measures total computation time for a particular endpoint. The application uses Micronaut Micrometer to expose application metric data with Micrometer.

Prerequisites #

Follow the steps below to create the application from scratch. However, you can also download the completed example:

A note regarding your development environment

Consider using Visual Studio Code, which provides native support for developing applications with the Graal Development Kit extension.

Note: If you use IntelliJ IDEA, enable annotation processing.

Windows platform: The GDK guides are compatible with Gradle only. Maven support is coming soon.

1. Create the Application #

Create an application using the GDK Launcher.

  1. Open the GDK Launcher in advanced mode.

  2. Create a new project using the following selections.
    • Project Type: Application (Default)
    • Project Name: oci-metrics-demo
    • Base Package: com.example (Default)
    • Clouds: OCI
    • Language: Java (Default)
    • Build Tool: Gradle (Groovy) or Maven
    • Test Framework: JUnit (Default)
    • Java Version: 17 (Default)
    • Micronaut Version: (Default)
    • Cloud Services: Database and Metrics
    • Features: MySQL, Flyway Database Migration, GraalVM Native Image, and Micrometer Annotation
    • Sample Code: No
  3. Click Generate Project, then click Download Zip. The GDK Launcher creates a Java project with the default package com.example in a directory named oci-metrics-demo. The application ZIP file will be downloaded to your default downloads directory. Unzip it, open it in your code editor, and proceed to the next steps.

Alternatively, use the GDK CLI as follows:

gcn create-app com.example.oci-metrics-demo \
    --clouds=oci \
    --services=database,metrics \
    --features=graalvm,mysql,flyway,micrometer-annotation \
    --example-code=false \
    --build=gradle \
    --jdk=17 \
    --lang=java
gcn create-app com.example.oci-metrics-demo \
    --clouds=oci \
    --services=database,metrics \
    --features=graalvm,mysql,flyway,micrometer-annotation \
    --example-code=false \
    --build=maven \
    --jdk=17 \
    --lang=java

For more information, see Using the GDK CLI.

The GDK Launcher creates a multimodule project with two subprojects: oci, and lib. The common application logic is in the lib subproject, and the oci subproject contain logic specific to the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure platform. When creating the application with the GDK, the necessary features such as the Logback framework, Micronaut Micrometer, and others were added for you. These features will be used in the guide.

1.1. Configure Metrics Collection #

The project generated by the GDK Launcher has Micrometer as a dependency.

Micrometer provides a simple facade over the instrumentation clients for a number of popular monitoring systems.

To configure Micrometer, the following properties were added to the configuration file, oci/src/main/resources/application.properties, as follows:

micronaut.metrics.enabled=true
micronaut.metrics.binders.files.enabled=true
micronaut.metrics.binders.jdbc.enabled=true
micronaut.metrics.binders.jvm.enabled=true
micronaut.metrics.binders.logback.enabled=true
micronaut.metrics.binders.processor.enabled=true
micronaut.metrics.binders.uptime.enabled=true
micronaut.metrics.binders.web.enabled=true

Several groups of metrics are enabled by default: these include system metrics (such as JVM information and uptime), as well as metrics tracking web requests, datasources activity, and others. Overall metrics can be enabled or disabled, and groups can be individually enabled or disabled in configuration. In this case all metrics are enabled. To disable, change to false, for example, per-environment.

To export metrics to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, configure Oracle Cloud Infrastructure as an export location for Micrometer. This involves enabling the metrics exporter and setting the namespace and destination compartment.

Enable the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure by setting the value of the configuration property micronaut.metrics.export.oraclecloud.enabled to true.

Set the micronaut.metrics.export.oraclecloud.namespace property for your metrics to something meaningful, for example, an application name such as ocimetricsdemo. The namespace will be used to group the metrics in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Metrics.

By default, metrics are published in your root compartment (also known as your “tenancy”). To specify the compartment in which metrics should be published, set the value of the micronaut.metrics.export.oraclecloud.compartmentId configuration property to the compartment OCID.

You can set these values in a configuration file, for example application-dev.properties (see section 6 where this file is used when running the application locally):

micronaut.metrics.export.oraclecloud.enabled=true
micronaut.metrics.export.oraclecloud.namespace=ocimetricsdemo
micronaut.metrics.export.oraclecloud.compartmentId=ocid1.compartment.oc1..aaa....bbbb...

or you can specify them externally as environment variables:

export MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_ENABLED=true
export MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_NAMESPACE=ocimetricsdemo
export MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_COMPARTMENT_ID=ocid1.compartment.oc1..aaa....bbbb...
set MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_ENABLED=true
set MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_NAMESPACE=ocimetricsdemo
set MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_COMPARTMENT_ID=ocid1.compartment.oc1..aaa....bbbb...
$ENV:MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_ENABLED = "true"
$ENV:MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_NAMESPACE = "ocimetricsdemo"
$ENV:MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_COMPARTMENT_ID = "ocid1.compartment.oc1..aaa....bbbb..."

Then, create queries and monitor your metrics in the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Monitoring Service’s Metrics Explorer UI.

1.2. Database Migration with Flyway #

To create the database schema, the application uses the Micronaut integration with Flyway. Flyway automates schema changes, significantly simplifying schema management tasks, such as migrating, rolling back, and reproducing in multiple environments.

  1. You specified Flyway as a project feature in the GDK Launcher, so the build file includes it as a dependency:

    build.gradle

    implementation("io.micronaut.flyway:micronaut-flyway")
    runtimeOnly("org.flywaydb:flyway-mysql")

    pom.xml

    <dependency>
        <groupId>io.micronaut.flyway</groupId>
        <artifactId>micronaut-flyway</artifactId>
        <scope>compile</scope>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.flywaydb</groupId>
        <artifactId>flyway-mysql</artifactId>
        <scope>runtime</scope>
    </dependency>
  2. The file oci/src/main/resources/application.properties was modified to enable Flyway to perform migrations on the default datasources, by adding the following:

     flyway.datasources.default.enabled=true
    

    Configuring multiple datasources is as simple. You can also specify directories that will be used for migrating each datasource. For more information, see Micronaut integration with Flyway.

  3. The GDK Launcher created a migration file in the lib/src/main/resources/db/migration/ directory named V1__schema.sql to contain the database schema, as follows:

    DROP TABLE IF EXISTS book;
    
    CREATE TABLE book (
        id   BIGINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT UNIQUE PRIMARY KEY,
       name  VARCHAR(255) NOT NULL UNIQUE,
       isbn  CHAR(13) NOT NULL UNIQUE
    );
    
    INSERT INTO book (isbn, name)
    VALUES ("9781491950357", "Building Microservices"),
           ("9781680502398", "Release It!"),
           ("9780321601919", "Continuous Delivery"),
           ("9781617294549", "Microservices Patterns");
    

Flyway migration is automatically triggered before your application starts and Flyway reads migration files from the lib/src/main/resources/db/migration/ directory. During application startup, Flyway runs the commands in the SQL file and creates the schema needed for the application.

Using the SQL statements in V1__schema.sql, Flyway creates a table with the name book and populates it with four records.

1.3. Domain Entity #

Create a Book domain class that uses Micronaut Data JDBC in a file named lib/src/main/java/com/example/Book.java, as follows:

package com.example;

import io.micronaut.data.annotation.GeneratedValue;
import io.micronaut.data.annotation.Id;
import io.micronaut.data.annotation.MappedEntity;

import static io.micronaut.data.annotation.GeneratedValue.Type.AUTO;

import io.micronaut.serde.annotation.Serdeable;
import jakarta.validation.constraints.Size;

@Serdeable
@MappedEntity // <1>
public class Book {

    @Id
    @GeneratedValue(AUTO)
    private Long id;

    private String name;

    @Size(min=13, max=13)
    private String isbn;

    public Book(String isbn, String name) {
        this.isbn = isbn;
        this.name = name;
    }

    public Long getId() {
        return id;
    }

    public void setId(Long id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }

    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }

    public String getIsbn() {
        return isbn;
    }

    public void setIsbn(String isbn) {
        this.isbn = isbn;
    }
}

1 The annotation @MappedEntity maps the class to the table defined in the schema.

1.4. Repository Interface #

A repository interface defines the operations to access the database. Micronaut Data implements the interface at compilation time. Create a BookRepository interface in a file named lib/src/main/java/com/example/BookRepository.java:

package com.example;

import io.micronaut.core.annotation.NonNull;
import io.micronaut.data.jdbc.annotation.JdbcRepository;
import io.micronaut.data.repository.CrudRepository;
import jakarta.validation.constraints.NotBlank;

import java.util.Optional;

import static io.micronaut.data.model.query.builder.sql.Dialect.MYSQL;

@JdbcRepository(dialect = MYSQL) // <1>
public interface BookRepository extends CrudRepository<Book, Long> { // <2>

    @NonNull
    Optional<Book> findByIsbn(@NotBlank String isbn);
}

1 A database dialect is specified with the @JdbcRepository annotation.

2 The Book is the root entity, and the primary key type is Long.

1.5. Controller Class #

Create a controller to access Book instances (and to trigger the JDBC metric data) in a file named lib/src/main/java/com/example/BookController.java with the following contents:

package com.example;

import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Controller;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Get;
import io.micronaut.scheduling.TaskExecutors;
import io.micronaut.scheduling.annotation.ExecuteOn;
import io.micrometer.core.annotation.Timed;
import io.micrometer.core.annotation.Counted;

import java.util.Optional;

@Controller("/books") // <1>
@ExecuteOn(TaskExecutors.IO)
class BookController {

    private final BookRepository bookRepository;

    BookController(BookRepository bookRepository) {
        this.bookRepository = bookRepository;
    }

    @Get // <2>
    @Timed("books.index") // <3>
    Iterable<Book> index() {
        return bookRepository.findAll();
    }

    @Get("/{isbn}")
    @Counted("books.find") // <4>
    Optional<Book> findBook(String isbn) {
        return bookRepository.findByIsbn(isbn);
    }
}

1 The class is defined as a controller with the @Controller annotation mapped to the path /books.

2 The controller maps a GET request to /books, which returns a list of Book.

3 Use a Micrometer @Timed annotation, with the value “books.index”, to create a timer metric.

4 Use a Micrometer @Counted annotation, with the value “books.find”, to create a counter metric.

2. Create Tests #

Note: You require a running Docker container to run the tests.

  1. For tests to run correctly, the GDK Launcher created a test configuration file named oci/src/test/resources/application-test.properties with the following contents:

     customMetrics.initialDelay=10h
     datasources.default.db-type=mysql
     datasources.default.dialect=MYSQL
     datasources.default.driverClassName=com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver
     flyway.datasources.default.enabled=true
     micronaut.metrics.enabled=true
     micronaut.metrics.export.cloudwatch.enabled=false
     micronaut.metrics.export.oraclecloud.enabled=false
    

    The configuration enables the metrics and specifies a MySQL datasource. Since it does not specify a URL for the source, Micronaut Test Resources automatically creates a test container for the database. The configuration also enables Flyway to create the books tables the same way as in a production environment.

  2. Create a test class, named BookControllerMetricsTest, to verify metrics functionality in a file named oci/src/test/java/com/example/BookControllerMetricsTest.java with the following contents:

     package com.example;
    
     import io.micrometer.core.instrument.Counter;
     import io.micrometer.core.instrument.MeterRegistry;
     import io.micrometer.core.instrument.Tags;
     import io.micrometer.core.instrument.Timer;
     import io.micronaut.core.type.Argument;
     import io.micronaut.http.HttpRequest;
     import io.micronaut.http.client.HttpClient;
     import io.micronaut.http.client.annotation.Client;
     import io.micronaut.logging.LoggingSystem;
     import io.micronaut.test.extensions.junit5.annotation.MicronautTest;
     import jakarta.inject.Inject;
     import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
     import org.slf4j.Logger;
     import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
    
     import java.util.List;
     import java.util.Map;
     import java.util.Set;
     import java.util.stream.Collectors;
     import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
    
     import static io.micronaut.logging.LogLevel.ALL;
     import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertEquals;
     import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertFalse;
     import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertTrue;
    
     @MicronautTest
     class BookControllerMetricsTest {
    
         @Inject
         MeterRegistry meterRegistry;
    
         @Inject
         LoggingSystem loggingSystem;
    
         @Inject
         @Client("/")
         HttpClient httpClient;
    
         @Test
         void testExpectedMeters() {
    
             Set<String> names = meterRegistry.getMeters().stream()
                     .map(meter -> meter.getId().getName())
                     .collect(Collectors.toSet());
    
             // check that a subset of expected meters exist
             assertTrue(names.contains("jvm.memory.max"));
             assertTrue(names.contains("process.uptime"));
             assertTrue(names.contains("system.cpu.usage"));
             assertTrue(names.contains("logback.events"));
             assertTrue(names.contains("hikaricp.connections.max"));
    
             // these will be lazily created
             assertFalse(names.contains("http.client.requests"));
             assertFalse(names.contains("http.server.requests"));
         }
    
         @Test
         void testHttp() {
    
             Timer timer = meterRegistry.timer("http.server.requests", Tags.of(
                     "exception", "none",
                     "method", "GET",
                     "status", "200",
                     "uri", "/books"));
             assertEquals(0, timer.count());
    
             Timer bookIndexTimer = meterRegistry.timer("books.index",
                     Tags.of("exception", "none"));
             assertEquals(0, bookIndexTimer.count());
    
             httpClient.toBlocking().retrieve(
                     HttpRequest.GET("/books"),
                     Argument.listOf(Book.class));
    
             assertEquals(1, timer.count());
             assertEquals(1, bookIndexTimer.count());
             assertTrue(0.0 < bookIndexTimer.totalTime(TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS));
             assertTrue(0.0 < bookIndexTimer.max(TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS));
    
             Counter bookFindCounter = meterRegistry.counter("books.find",
                     Tags.of("result", "success",
                             "exception", "none"));
             assertEquals(0, bookFindCounter.count());
    
             httpClient.toBlocking().retrieve(
                     HttpRequest.GET("/books/9781491950357"),
                     Argument.of(Book.class));
    
             assertEquals(1, bookFindCounter.count());
         }
    
         @Test
         void testLogback() {
    
             Counter counter = meterRegistry.counter("logback.events", Tags.of("level", "info"));
             double initial = counter.count();
    
             Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger("testing.testing");
             loggingSystem.setLogLevel("testing.testing", ALL);
    
             logger.trace("trace");
             logger.debug("debug");
             logger.info("info");
             logger.warn("warn");
             logger.error("error");
    
             assertEquals(initial + 1, counter.count(), 0.000001);
         }
    
         @Test
         void testMetricsEndpoint() {
    
             Map<String, Object> response = httpClient.toBlocking().retrieve(
                     HttpRequest.GET("/metrics"),
                     Argument.mapOf(String.class, Object.class));
    
             assertTrue(response.containsKey("names"));
             assertTrue(response.get("names") instanceof List);
    
             List<String> names = (List<String>) response.get("names");
    
             // check that a subset of expected meters exist
             assertTrue(names.contains("jvm.memory.max"));
             assertTrue(names.contains("process.uptime"));
             assertTrue(names.contains("system.cpu.usage"));
             assertTrue(names.contains("logback.events"));
             assertTrue(names.contains("hikaricp.connections.max"));
         }
    
         @Test
         void testOneMetricEndpoint() {
    
             Map<String, Object> response = httpClient.toBlocking().retrieve(
                     HttpRequest.GET("/metrics/jvm.memory.used"),
                     Argument.mapOf(String.class, Object.class));
    
             String name = (String) response.get("name");
             assertEquals("jvm.memory.used", name);
    
             List<Map<String, Object>> measurements = (List<Map<String, Object>>) response.get("measurements");
             assertEquals(1, measurements.size());
    
             double value = (double) measurements.get(0).get("value");
             assertTrue(value > 0);
         }
     }
    

    The tests verify that certain metrics are present, including the ones that you enabled in the application configuration file, and the ones that you collected thanks to the @Counter and @Timer annotations.

    Note that, since the @MicronautTest annotation is used, Micronaut initializes the application context and the embedded server with the endpoints you created earlier. (For more information, see the Micronaut Test guide.)

3. Create Custom Metrics #

  1. Create a service that retrieves information from the database and publishes custom metrics based on it. The custom metrics provide the number of books about microservices. The service is in a file named lib/src/main/java/com/example/MicroserviceBooksNumberService.java with the following contents:

     package com.example;
    
     import io.micrometer.core.instrument.Counter;
     import io.micrometer.core.instrument.MeterRegistry;
     import io.micrometer.core.instrument.Timer;
     import io.micronaut.scheduling.annotation.Scheduled;
     import jakarta.inject.Singleton;
     import org.slf4j.Logger;
     import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
    
     import java.util.concurrent.atomic.AtomicInteger;
     import java.util.stream.StreamSupport;
    
     @Singleton
     public class MicroserviceBooksNumberService {
    
         private final Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger(getClass().getName());
    
         private final BookRepository bookRepository;
         private final Counter checks;
         private final Timer time;
         private final AtomicInteger microserviceBooksNumber = new AtomicInteger(0);
    
         private static final String SEARCH_KEY = "microservice";
    
         MicroserviceBooksNumberService(BookRepository bookRepository,
                                        MeterRegistry meterRegistry) { // <1>
             this.bookRepository = bookRepository;
             checks = meterRegistry.counter("microserviceBooksNumber.checks");
             time = meterRegistry.timer("microserviceBooksNumber.time");
             meterRegistry.gauge("microserviceBooksNumber.latest", microserviceBooksNumber);
         }
    
         @Scheduled(fixedRate = "${customMetrics.updateFrequency:1h}",
                    initialDelay = "${customMetrics.initialDelay:0s}") // <2>
         public void updateNumber() {
             time.record(() -> {
                 try {
                     Iterable<Book> allBooks = bookRepository.findAll();
                     long booksNumber = StreamSupport.stream(allBooks.spliterator(), false)
                             .filter(b -> b.getName().toLowerCase().contains(SEARCH_KEY))
                             .count();
    
                     checks.increment();
                     microserviceBooksNumber.set((int) booksNumber);
                 } catch (Exception e) {
                     log.error("Problem setting the number of microservice books", e);
                 }
             });
         }
     }
    

    1 The code registers custom meters, queries the database, counts books containing microservice in the name and updates the microserviceBooksNumber.latest meter with the value. microserviceBooksNumber.checks stores the number of updates performed, and microserviceBooksNumber.time stores the total time spent on the updates for the metric.

    2 The metric update is scheduled. The customMetrics.updateFrequency parameter corresponds to the update rate and has the default value of one hour. The customMetrics.initialDelay parameter corresponds to a delay after application startup before metrics calculation and has a default value of zero seconds.

  2. Create a test for the custom metrics in a class named MicroserviceBooksNumberTest. Create a new file named oci/src/test/java/com/example/MicroserviceBooksNumberTest.java with the following contents:

     package com.example;
    
     import io.micrometer.core.instrument.Counter;
     import io.micrometer.core.instrument.Gauge;
     import io.micrometer.core.instrument.MeterRegistry;
     import io.micrometer.core.instrument.Timer;
     import io.micronaut.test.extensions.junit5.annotation.MicronautTest;
     import jakarta.inject.Inject;
     import org.junit.jupiter.api.Test;
    
     import static java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS;
     import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertEquals;
     import static org.junit.jupiter.api.Assertions.assertTrue;
    
     @MicronautTest
     class MicroserviceBooksNumberTest {
    
         @Inject
         MeterRegistry meterRegistry;
    
         @Inject
         MicroserviceBooksNumberService service;
    
         @Test
         void testMicroserviceBooksNumberUpdates() {
             Counter counter = meterRegistry.counter("microserviceBooksNumber.checks");
             Timer timer = meterRegistry.timer("microserviceBooksNumber.time");
             Gauge gauge = meterRegistry.get("microserviceBooksNumber.latest").gauge();
    
             assertEquals(0.0, counter.count());
             assertEquals(0.0, timer.totalTime(MILLISECONDS));
             assertEquals(0.0, gauge.value());
    
             int checks = 3;
             for (int i = 0; i < checks; i++) { // <1>
                 service.updateNumber();
             }
    
             assertEquals((double) checks, counter.count());
             assertTrue(timer.totalTime(MILLISECONDS) > 0);
             assertEquals(2.0, gauge.value());
         }
     }
    

    1 The test calls the service three times and verifies that the metrics are collected correctly. Because the Flyway schema added two books with titles containing the word “microservices”, the value of microserviceBooksNumber.latest is 2.0.

    To make sure that the test works as expected and only three updates of the metric are performed, change the test configuration (in the file oci/src/test/resources/application-test.properties) so that it does not perform scheduled updates for the custom metric. To achieve this, change the customMetrics.initialDelay parameter to a large value, such as 10 hours. For example:

     customMetrics.initialDelay=10h
    

4. Run the Tests #

To run the tests, use the following command:

./gradlew test

Then open the file oci/build/reports/tests/test/index.html in a browser to view the results.

./mvnw test

The tests could be run locally without any cloud credentials, as metrics are not exported to the cloud, and a database is automatically provided by Micronaut test containers.

5. Configure the Application #

  1. The GDK Launcher configured an initial datasource in oci/src/main/resources/application.properties with the following properties:

     datasources.default.db-type=mysql
     datasources.default.dialect=MYSQL
     datasources.default.driverClassName=com.mysql.cj.jdbc.Driver
    

    You can set values for the missing datasources.default.url, datasources.default.username, and datasources.default.password properties with these environment variables:

    export DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_URL=jdbc:mysql://<Datasource URL, IP, or localhost>:3306/gdk
    export DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_USERNAME=<Username>
    export DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_PASSWORD=<Password>
    set DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_URL=jdbc:mysql://<Datasource URL, IP, or localhost>:3306/gdk
    set DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_USERNAME=<Username>
    set DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_PASSWORD=<Password>
    $ENV:DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_URL = "jdbc:mysql://<Datasource URL, IP, or localhost>:3306/gdk"
    $ENV:DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_USERNAME = "<Username>"
    $ENV:DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_PASSWORD = "<Password>"

    This approach requires an existing database, or requires you to manually start a server in a Docker container. Instead, to simplify things, do not set the environment variables: if you do not specify a datasource URL, Micronaut Test Resources automatically starts a MySQL server in a Docker container when running the application locally or running tests.

  2. Configure Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Authentication.

    If you haven’t created an API-key and configuration file, run the following command:

    oci setup bootstrap
    

    The command will open your browser for authentication. When asked, enter your region (for example, ca-toronto-1 for Toronto, Canada) and a name for the profile (for example, oci_metrics_demo_profile).

    Note: For more information, see Oracle Cloud Infrastructure SDK Authentication Methods and Setting up the Configuration File.

    Use the credentials in the configuration file oci/src/main/resources/application.properties, as follows:

    oci.config.profile=oci_metrics_demo_profile
    

    Provide the profile name. If you didn’t create a custom profile name, use DEFAULT. Use the oci.config.path property if you need to specify the path to the configuration file.

    Note: If you deploy the application to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, set the property oci.config.instance-principal.enabled: true for instance principal authentication. For more details on configuring Oracle Cloud Infrastructure authentication with Micronaut, see Micronaut Oracle Cloud documentation.

6. Run the Application #

Before starting the application, set values for Oracle Cloud Infrastructure metrics configuration properties.

You can specify them externally as environment variables:

export MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_ENABLED=true
export MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_NAMESPACE=ocimetricsdemo
export MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_COMPARTMENT_ID=ocid1.compartment.oc1..aaa....bbbb...
set MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_ENABLED=true
set MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_NAMESPACE=ocimetricsdemo
set MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_COMPARTMENT_ID=ocid1.compartment.oc1..aaa....bbbb...
$ENV:MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_ENABLED = "true"
$ENV:MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_NAMESPACE = "ocimetricsdemo"
$ENV:MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_COMPARTMENT_ID = "ocid1.compartment.oc1..aaa....bbbb..."

or you can set them in a configuration file. Since the application will be running locally and not deployed to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, create a new properties file, oci/src/main/resources/application-dev.properties with the following contents (with your namespace and compartment OCID replaced):

micronaut.metrics.export.oraclecloud.enabled=true
micronaut.metrics.export.oraclecloud.namespace=ocimetricsdemo
micronaut.metrics.export.oraclecloud.compartmentId=ocid1.compartment.oc1..aaa....bbbb...

To run the application, use the following command, which starts the application on port 8080.

./gradlew :oci:run

If using a properties file, run

MICRONAUT_ENVIRONMENTS=dev ./gradlew :oci:run

Or if you use Windows:

cmd /C "set MICRONAUT_ENVIRONMENTS=dev && gradlew :oci:run"

Alternatively, to cause the custom metric update to occur more frequently (to see the effects on metrics), start the application with a configuration override to update every five seconds, as follows:

./gradlew :oci:run --args="-customMetrics.updateFrequency=5s"

If using a properties file, run

MICRONAUT_ENVIRONMENTS=dev ./gradlew :oci:run --args="-customMetrics.updateFrequency=5s"
Or if you use Windows:
cmd /C "set MICRONAUT_ENVIRONMENTS=dev && gradlew :oci:run --args="-customMetrics.updateFrequency=5s""
./mvnw install -pl lib -am
./mvnw mn:run -pl oci

If using a properties file, run

./mvnw install -pl lib -am
MICRONAUT_ENVIRONMENTS=dev ./mvnw mn:run -pl oci

Or if you use Windows:

mvnw install -pl lib -am
cmd /C "set MICRONAUT_ENVIRONMENTS=dev && mvnw mn:run -pl oci"

Alternatively, to cause the custom metric update to occur more frequently (to see the effects on metrics), start the application with a configuration override to update every five seconds, as follows:

./mvnw install -pl lib -am
./mvnw mn:run -pl oci -Dmn.appArgs="-customMetrics.updateFrequency=5s"

If using a properties file, run

./mvnw install -pl lib -am
MICRONAUT_ENVIRONMENTS=dev ./mvnw mn:run -pl oci -Dmn.appArgs="-customMetrics.updateFrequency=5s"

Or if you use Windows:

mvnw install -pl lib -am
cmd /C "set MICRONAUT_ENVIRONMENTS=dev && mvnw mn:run -pl oci -Dmn.appArgs="-customMetrics.updateFrequency=5s""

Note: If your application fails with the message “Private key must be in PEM format”, try creating and adding the SSH key without a passphrase to your Oracle Cloud Infrastructure profile. Both the private key and public key must be in PEM format (not SSH-RSA format). If the issue persists, run the following commands to convert your key to the expected format.


Linux and macOS:

KEY_FOLDER=~/.oci/sessions/oci_metrics_demo_profile
cp $KEY_FOLDER/oci_api_key.pem $KEY_FOLDER/oci_api_key_enc.pem
openssl pkcs8 -in $KEY_FOLDER/oci_api_key_enc.pem -out $KEY_FOLDER/oci_api_key.pem

Windows:

set KEY_FOLDER=/Users/[USERNAME]/.oci/sessions/oci_metrics_demo_profile
copy %KEY_FOLDER%/oci_api_key.pem %KEY_FOLDER%/oci_api_key_enc.pem
openssl pkcs8 -in %KEY_FOLDER%/oci_api_key_enc.pem -out %KEY_FOLDER%/oci_api_key.pem
Note that openssl is not installed by default on Windows, and requires you to install it.

Send a few test requests with curl, as follows:

  • Get all the books:
    curl localhost:8080/books
    
    [{"id": 1, "name": "Building Microservices", "isbn": "9781491950357"},
    {"id": 2, "name": "Release It!", "isbn": "9781680502398"},
    {"id": 3, "name": "Continuous Delivery", "isbn": "9780321601919"}]
    
  • Get a book by its ISBN:
    curl localhost:8080/books/9781680502398
    
    {"id": 2, "name": "Release It!", "isbn": "9781680502398"}
    
  • Get a list of all the available metrics:
    curl localhost:8080/metrics
    
    {"names": [
      "books.find",
      "books.index",
      ...,
      "microserviceBooksNumber.latest",
      "microserviceBooksNumber.time",
      ...,
      "http.server.requests",
      "process.uptime",
      ...
    ]}
    
  • Get the value of a particular metric:
    curl localhost:8080/metrics/http.server.requests
    
    {"name": "http.server.requests",
    "measurements": [
        {"statistic": "COUNT", "value": 3.0},
        {"statistic": "TOTAL_TIME", "value": 0.6045995000000001},
        {"statistic": "MAX", "value": 0.0343463}
    ], ...
    }
    
  • Get the value of the metric that you created on the books endpoint:
    curl localhost:8080/metrics/books.index
    
    {"name": "books.index",
    "measurements": [
        {"statistic": "COUNT", "value": 1.0},
        {"statistic": "TOTAL_TIME", "value": 0.3218636},
        {"statistic":"MAX","value":0.0}
    ], ...
    }
    
  • Get the value of the custom metric calculating the number of books with microservice in their title:
    curl localhost:8080/metrics/microserviceBooksNumber.latest
    
    {"name": "microserviceBooksNumber.latest",
    "measurements": [{"statistic": "VALUE", "value" :2.0}]
    }
    

Note: When you stop the application, you may see several error messages (such as “failed to post metrics to oracle cloud infrastructure monitoring” and “Client ‘oci’: Cannot send HTTPS request. SSL is disabled.”). These can be safely ignored.

7. Monitor Metrics in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Metrics Explorer #

Use the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Monitoring Service’s Metrics Explorer UI to view the collected metrics.

  1. In the Oracle Cloud Console, open the navigation menu, click Observability & Management. Under Monitoring, click Metrics Explorer:

    Searching Metrics Explorer

  2. In the query editor, create a query that you want to monitor. Specify the compartment (#1), namespace (#2), and the name of the metric (#3):

    Query Editor

  3. Click Update Chart (#4) and the values of your selected metric are displayed in the Metrics Explorer:

    Metrics Explorer

8. Generate a Native Executable using GraalVM #

The GDK supports compiling a Java application ahead-of-time into a native executable using GraalVM Native Image. You can use the Gradle plugin for GraalVM Native Image building/Maven plugin for GraalVM Native Image building. Packaged as a native executable, it significantly reduces application startup time and memory footprint.

8.1. Build the Native Executable #

To generate a native executable, run the following command:

./gradlew :oci:nativeCompile
./mvnw install -pl lib -am
./mvnw package -pl oci -Dpackaging=native-image

8.2. Run the Native Executable #

To start the native executable, run a Docker container with a MySQL database:

docker run -it --rm \
    --name "mysql.8" \
    -p 3306:3306 \
    -e MYSQL_DATABASE=gdk \
    -e MYSQL_USER=guide_user \
    -e MYSQL_PASSWORD=User123User! \
    -e MYSQL_ALLOW_EMPTY_PASSWORD=true \
    mysql:8

Set environment variables to provide values for the missing datasource url, username, and password properties:

export DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_URL=jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/gdk
export DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_USERNAME=guide_user
export DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_PASSWORD=User123User!
set DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_URL=jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/gdk
set DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_USERNAME=guide_user
set DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_PASSWORD=User123User!
$ENV:DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_URL = "jdbc:mysql://localhost:3306/gdk"
$ENV:DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_USERNAME = "guide_user"
$ENV:DATASOURCES_DEFAULT_PASSWORD = "User123User!"

and environment variables to provide values for metrics properties:

export MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_ENABLED=true
export MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_NAMESPACE=ocimetricsdemo
export MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_COMPARTMENT_ID=ocid1.compartment.oc1..aaa....bbbb...
set MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_ENABLED=true
set MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_NAMESPACE=ocimetricsdemo
set MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_COMPARTMENT_ID=ocid1.compartment.oc1..aaa....bbbb...
$ENV:MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_ENABLED = "true"
$ENV:MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_NAMESPACE = "ocimetricsdemo"
$ENV:MICRONAUT_METRICS_EXPORT_ORACLECLOUD_COMPARTMENT_ID = "ocid1.compartment.oc1..aaa....bbbb..."

Start the generated native executable:

oci/build/native/nativeCompile/oci
oci/target/oci

Note: With Gradle you can run ./gradlew :oci:nativeRun to start the native executable in development mode, which uses Micronaut Test Resources and therefore doesn’t require you to start a MySQL server.

Run the same curl commands from above to confirm that the application works the same way as before, but with faster startup and response times.

Then return to the Oracle Cloud Console to review the metrics in the Metrics Explorer.

To stop your container run the following command:

docker stop mysql.8

Summary #

This guide demonstrated how to create a Micronaut application that collects standard and custom metrics, then publishes and monitors them on Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Monitoring. The application uses Micronaut Micrometer to expose application metric data with Micrometer.