Create and Connect a Micronaut Application to Amazon S3 Object Storage

This guide describes how to use the Graal Development Kit for Micronaut (GDK) to create a Micronaut® application that demonstrates how to store, retrieve, and delete user profile pictures in Amazon Web Services (AWS) S3 Object Storage using the Micronaut Object Storage API.

The Micronaut Object Storage API provides a uniform API to create, read, and delete objects in the major cloud providers:

  • Amazon S3
  • Google Cloud Storage
  • Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Object Storage

Using this API enables the creation of truly multicloud, portable applications.

Prerequisites #

Follow the steps below to create the application from scratch. However, you can also download the completed example:

A note regarding your development environment

Consider using Visual Studio Code, which provides native support for developing applications with the Graal Development Kit extension.

Note: If you use IntelliJ IDEA, enable annotation processing.

Windows platform: The GDK guides are compatible with Gradle only. Maven support is coming soon.

1. Create the Application #

Create an application using the GDK Launcher.

  1. Open the GDK Launcher in advanced mode.

  2. Create a new project using the following selections. (Alternatively, use these shortcuts for Maven or Gradle.)
    • Project Type: Application (Default)
    • Project Name: aws-storage-demo
    • Base Package: com.example (Default)
    • Clouds: AWS
    • Language: Java (Default)
    • Build Tool: Gradle (Groovy) or Maven
    • Test Framework: JUnit (Default)
    • Java Version: 17 (Default)
    • Micronaut Version: (Default)
    • Cloud Services: Object Storage
    • Features: GraalVM Native Image (Default)
    • Sample Code: Yes (Default)
  3. Click Generate Project, then click Download Zip. The GDK Launcher creates an application with the default package com.example in a directory named aws-storage-demo. The application ZIP file will be downloaded to your default downloads directory. Unzip it, open it in your code editor, and proceed to the next steps.

Alternatively, use the GDK CLI as follows:

gcn create-app com.example.aws-storage-demo \
    --clouds=aws \
    --services=objectstore \
    --features=graalvm \
    --build=gradle \
    --jdk=17 \
    --lang=java
gcn create-app com.example.aws-storage-demo \
    --clouds=aws \
    --services=objectstore \
    --features=graalvm \
    --build=maven \
    --jdk=17 \
    --lang=java

For more information, see Using the GDK CLI.

2. ProfilePicturesController #

The GDK Launcher created an interface with the endpoints of the “profile pictures” microservice in a file named lib/src/main/java/com/example/ProfilePicturesApi.java:

package com.example;

import io.micronaut.http.HttpRequest;
import io.micronaut.http.HttpResponse;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Delete;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Get;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Post;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Status;
import io.micronaut.http.multipart.CompletedFileUpload;
import io.micronaut.http.server.types.files.StreamedFile;

import java.util.Optional;

import static io.micronaut.http.HttpStatus.NO_CONTENT;
import static io.micronaut.http.MediaType.MULTIPART_FORM_DATA;

public interface ProfilePicturesApi {

    @Post(uri = "/{userId}", consumes = MULTIPART_FORM_DATA) // <1>
    HttpResponse<?> upload(CompletedFileUpload fileUpload, String userId, HttpRequest<?> request);

    @Get("/{userId}") // <2>
    Optional<HttpResponse<StreamedFile>> download(String userId);

    @Status(NO_CONTENT) // <3>
    @Delete("/{userId}") // <4>
    void delete(String userId);
}

1 The @Post annotation maps the method to an HTTP POST request.

2 The @Get annotation maps the method to an HTTP GET request.

3 You can return void in your controller’s method and specify the HTTP status code via the @Status annotation.

4 The @Delete annotation maps the delete method to an HTTP Delete request on /{userId}.

The GDK Launcher also created the ProfilePicturesController class that implements the ProfilePicturesApi interface in a file named lib/src/main/java/com/example/ProfilePicturesController.java. It contains the class definition and constructor:

package com.example;

import io.micronaut.http.HttpRequest;
import io.micronaut.http.HttpResponse;
import io.micronaut.http.MutableHttpResponse;
import io.micronaut.http.annotation.Controller;
import io.micronaut.http.multipart.CompletedFileUpload;
import io.micronaut.http.server.types.files.StreamedFile;
import io.micronaut.http.server.util.HttpHostResolver;
import io.micronaut.http.uri.UriBuilder;
import io.micronaut.objectstorage.ObjectStorageEntry;
import io.micronaut.objectstorage.ObjectStorageOperations;
import io.micronaut.objectstorage.request.UploadRequest;
import io.micronaut.objectstorage.response.UploadResponse;
import io.micronaut.scheduling.TaskExecutors;
import io.micronaut.scheduling.annotation.ExecuteOn;

import java.net.URI;
import java.util.Optional;

import static io.micronaut.http.HttpHeaders.ETAG;
import static io.micronaut.http.MediaType.IMAGE_JPEG_TYPE;

@Controller(ProfilePicturesController.PREFIX) // <1>
@ExecuteOn(TaskExecutors.IO) // <2>
class ProfilePicturesController implements ProfilePicturesApi {

    static final String PREFIX = "/pictures";

    private final ObjectStorageOperations<?, ?, ?> objectStorage; // <3>
    private final HttpHostResolver httpHostResolver; // <4>

    ProfilePicturesController(ObjectStorageOperations<?, ?, ?> objectStorage,
                              HttpHostResolver httpHostResolver) {
        this.objectStorage = objectStorage;
        this.httpHostResolver = httpHostResolver;
    }
}

1 The class is defined as a controller with the @Controller annotation mapped to the path /pictures.

2 It is critical that any blocking I/O operations (such as fetching the data from the database) are offloaded to a separate thread pool that does not block the event loop.

3 ObjectStorageOperations provides a uniform API to create, read and delete objects in the major cloud providers.

4 HttpHostResolver enables you to resolve the host for an HTTP request.

2.1. Upload Endpoint #

The GDK Launcher also generated the /upload endpoint which receives the file from the HTTP client via CompletedFileUpload, and the userId path parameter. It uploads the file to S3 Object Storage using ObjectStorageOperations, and then returns its ETag in an HTTP response header to the client:

@Override
public HttpResponse<?> upload(CompletedFileUpload fileUpload,
                              String userId,
                              HttpRequest<?> request) {
    String key = buildKey(userId); // <1>
    UploadRequest objectStorageUpload = UploadRequest.fromCompletedFileUpload(fileUpload, key); // <2>
    UploadResponse<?> response = objectStorage.upload(objectStorageUpload); // <3>

    return HttpResponse
            .created(location(request, userId)) // <4>
            .header(ETAG, response.getETag()); // <5>
}

private static String buildKey(String userId) {
    return userId + ".jpg";
}

private URI location(HttpRequest<?> request, String userId) {
    return UriBuilder.of(httpHostResolver.resolve(request))
            .path(PREFIX)
            .path(userId)
            .build();
}

1 The key represents the path under which the file will be stored.

2 You can use any of the UploadRequest static methods to build an upload request.

3 The upload operation returns an UploadResponse, which wraps the cloud-specific SDK response.

4 Return the absolute URL of the resource in the location header.

5 The response object contains some common properties for all cloud vendors, such as the ETag, that is sent in a header to the client.

2.2. Download Endpoint #

The generated /download endpoint simply retrieves the entry from the expected key, and transforms it into a StreamedFile:

@Override
public Optional<HttpResponse<StreamedFile>> download(String userId) {
    String key = buildKey(userId);
    return objectStorage.retrieve(key) // <1>
            .map(ProfilePicturesController::buildStreamedFile); // <2>
}

private static HttpResponse<StreamedFile> buildStreamedFile(ObjectStorageEntry<?> entry) {
    StreamedFile file = new StreamedFile(entry.getInputStream(), IMAGE_JPEG_TYPE).attach(entry.getKey());
    MutableHttpResponse<Object> httpResponse = HttpResponse.ok();
    file.process(httpResponse);
    return httpResponse.body(file);
}

1 The retrieve operation returns a cloud-independent ObjectStorageEntry.

2 Transform the cloud-specific storage entry into an HttpResponse<StreamedFile>.

The HTTP client could have used the ETag from the upload operation and sent it in a If-None-Match header in the download request to implement caching, which then could have been implemented in the download endpoint. But this approach is beyond the scope of this guide.

2.3. Delete Endpoint #

For the /delete endpoint, all you have to do is invoke the delete method with the expected key:

@Override
public void delete(String userId) {
    String key = buildKey(userId);
    objectStorage.delete(key);
}

3. Set up AWS Resources #

Start by creating an administrator account, then create a bucket.

3.1. Create an Administrator Account #

Instead of using your AWS root account, use an administrator account. If you do not have one already, see Setting up Your Cloud Accounts.

3.2. Create a Bucket #

Create an Amazon S3 bucket using the aws CLI:

aws s3api create-bucket --bucket gdk-guide-object-storage

Note: Bucket names must be unique across all AWS accounts, so you might need to change the bucket name and retry the command with a different name.

Note: Your default region is automatically detected from the configuration you created using aws configure.

Note: If you create the bucket using the AWS S3 console, keep the default setting of “Disable” for Bucket Versioning.

Then, configure the bucket in aws/src/main/resources/application.properties:

micronaut.object-storage.aws.default.bucket=gdk-guide-object-storage

3.3 Configure the Upload Parameters #

To upload a file larger than 1MB, configure the file aws/src/main/resources/application.properties as follows:

# 20MB = 20 * 1024 * 1024b = 20971520b
micronaut.server.multipart.max-file-size=20971520

4. Run the Application #

To run the application, use the following command, which starts the application on port 8080.

./gradlew :aws:run
./mvnw install -pl lib -am
./mvnw mn:run -pl aws

5. Test the Application #

Test the application by uploading, downloading, and deleting a user profile picture.

5.1. Upload a Profile Picture #

Assuming you have a profile picture in a local file named profile.jpg, you can upload it to your application using the following command:

curl -i -F "fileUpload=@profile.jpg" http://localhost:8080/pictures/user_name
HTTP/1.1 201 Created
location: http://localhost:8080/pictures/user_name
ETag: "617cb82e296e153c29b34cccf7af0908"
date: Wed, 14 Sep 2022 12:50:30 GMT
connection: keep-alive
transfer-encoding: chunked

Note the location and ETag headers.

Use the aws CLI to verify that the file has been uploaded to an S3 bucket, as follows:

aws s3 ls s3://gdk-guide-object-storage

5.2. Download a Profile Picture #

Use the following command to download a picture:

curl http://localhost:8080/pictures/user_name -O -J

The file will be saved as user_name.jpg because the download endpoint includes a Content-Disposition: attachment header. Open it to check that it is the same image as profile.jpg.

5.3. Delete a Profile Picture #

Use the following command to delete a picture:

curl -X DELETE http://localhost:8080/pictures/user_name

Then, check that the file has actually been deleted using the following command:

aws s3 ls s3://gdk-guide-object-storage

6. Generate a Native Executable Using GraalVM #

The GDK supports compiling a Java application ahead-of-time into a native executable using GraalVM Native Image. You can use the Gradle plugin for GraalVM Native Image building/Maven plugin for GraalVM Native Image building. Packaged as a native executable, it significantly reduces application startup time and memory footprint.

To generate a native executable, run the following command:

./gradlew :aws:nativeCompile

The native executable is created in the aws/build/native/nativeCompile/ directory and can be run with the following command:

aws/build/native/nativeCompile/aws
./mvnw install -pl lib -am
./mvnw package -pl aws -Dpackaging=native-image

The native executable is created in the aws/target/ directory and can be run with the following command:

aws/target/aws

7. Run and Test the Native Executable #

Run the native executable, and then perform the same tests as in step 5.

8. Clean up #

When you have completed the guide, remove the bucket from S3 to avoid stale resources. Use the following command to delete the bucket:

aws s3api delete-bucket --bucket gdk-guide-object-storage

Summary #

This guide demonstrated how to create a Java application to store, retrieve, and delete user profile pictures in Amazon Web Services S3 Object Storage.